“Of Chinese porcelain, porcelain high point is this“. Porcelain is China‘sgreat inventions, porcelain is an important symbol of China‘s ancientcivilization, and Jingdezhen is the China country representative. Ying yingwhite porcelain, porcelain‘s long road, known as “porcelain capital“Jingdezhen porcelain not only has a long history, even more important is tocreate world famous porcelain, renowned Jiuzhou. “Jiangnan town holding downTao Yang, excellent decorated Quartet“ is a portrayal of this situation.
Jingdezhen is located in the northeast of Jiangxi province, was formerly thefuliang County governance. During the Eastern Jin dynasty called Xinpingtown, Chang–Nan instead of the Tang dynasty (also, Tao Yang Zhen),Jingdezhen, Song dynasty during the reign of King de said, is still practised today.
According to historical records, Jingdezhen porcelain is more than 2000 years of history, “the new Mercedes pottery, began in the Han dynasty.” At this moment, Jingdezhen region on the basis of the original porcelain in the Shang and Zhou, burn out “table with glaze,” “green China”. The Jin dynasty, reportedly experienced artificers trip money for Jingdezhen porcelain and had made great contributions to improve the quality of, which was later known as the “teacher”, successive State Temple. With the progress of the times and a booming economy in Jiangnan area of Jingdezhen porcelain technology has improved, product distribution all over. In 583, the Division one of the southern dynasty emperor Chen shubao to make Howard Johnson Pavilion, Dahir Potter fired here engraving fine ceramic pillars. Soon established sui, Sui Yang-di and lion-like beast two dedicated to the Royal Palace. This means, when porcelain of Jingdezhen region has a considerable level of skill, porcelain products also have a greater impact, that attracted the attention of the Supreme ruler. Short of sui after leaning keep pushing on, powerful Tang Empire following the sign, gaozuliyuan during the reign of wude (618-626), Also known as Chang Nan area of Jingdezhen porcelain industry have greater development, out of the two celebrities, a man named Tao Yu, a man named Huo Zhongchu. According to log book records: “Tang wude, Zhen Tao Yu, entry contained porcelain, known as jade, and Gong Yuchao, so Chang Nan porcelain in the world. “Tao Yu Zhong Xiu is the town, and he burned the” Tao “porcelain” porcelain color pigment, good and greasy, thin, Jia Ying careful as jade. ” These records illustrate the fact: Jingdezhen region from the Han to the Tang dynasty at that time, not only has been engaged in ceramic production, and after nearly a thousand years of exploration and pursuit, has moved from the pottery phase around the stage, China has a considerable achievement in the Tang dynasty in China has great influence. Famous writer Liu Zongyuan’s raozhou CI Shi Yuancui in Tang dynasty wrote of the porcelain-like tribute to the porcelain beauty. Certainly, above by said of these situation also only limited to text, records famous of pottery kiln, and Huo kiln, site also also no was found, century 50 generation in, Jingdezhen city district around yellow mud head, and White Tiger Bay, and tengmeiting, and hutian, to found of five kiln site, and mining out of large debris, is to real proved has that period here burn made out of porcelain main is celadon and white porcelain, and to celadon for more. Mainly plates, bowls, pot, water jar, dishes, etc. Thick thin porcelain, Yue kiln glaze color with hints of green, jade and like it, is called “Jade” is very apt. The five dynasties, apart from firing Celadon, and southern kiln porcelain kilns of the earliest and largest, White Tiger Bay only a Department with more than 30 seats, can be seen. From the perspective of the existing large number of unearthed, pure white tones, white up to 70Degrees, water absorption, porcelain light transmission up to modern standards. Porcelain which far exceeds the Yue kilns, topping the world.
Jingdezhen, Song dynasty was a special meaning. Because of continuing“Jingdezhen“ is the name of the dynasty. This thing what RAMPF of volume vof the Jingdezhen pottery was recorded saying very clearly. Historicaldevelopment to the Song dynasty, famous kiln North and South buildings,highlighting Yu, officer, June, will be, the five famous kilns, whileproduction of Jingdezhen porcelain industry has entered a new period, in thelate Tang and five dynasties have sizeable Celadon (also known as “shadowceladon“), then became a national representative of the origin. Due to here fired porcelain “soil white soil and clay, quality thin greasy, color moist”, really cases King de years (A. D. 1004-1007) Emperor trip constant sent people to Jingdezhen, to here for Royal manufacturing Queen’s porcelain, end of book “King de years business” four word, due to its device light to Shigemi, at is effect with line domestic, so world salt said “Jingdezhen porcelain”, Jingdezhen was which and named. 11th century late to 12th century early, due to war frequent, North all name kiln have decline, song room South moved zhihou, political, and economic gravity South moved, business porcelain skills more to Jingdezhen concentrated, set North-South name kiln skills of big into, process level has breakthrough progress, production scale also increasingly big, to makes Jingdezhen business porcelain industry into big development period, became “industry pottery will”. According to Chiang Chi-written by Tao JI records, Jingdezhen kilnsmore than 300 seats, forming the town of “Cun Cun Tao yan, Director of fire“event. The famous poetess Li Qingzhao’s CI in Southern Song dynasty“Festival and chongyang, jade screen, cool early in the Middle“ chant, theword “yuchen“ is the Jingdezhen products.
Jingdezhen porcelain making history, the Yuan dynasty was a period ofinnovation. During this period except in the building on a lot of firingoutside the blue and white porcelain of the Song dynasty, whose greatestachievement is create successfully is still famous blue and white porcelain.In 1929, the British Huo Buxun found a marked to 11 years (ad 1351) ofJingdezhen blue and white porcelain of the Ming Dragon elephant ear bottle.Real show that beginning of the 14th century AD, Jingdezhen has successfullyproduced high quality blue and white porcelain. Yuan previously, porcelaindecoration was rather dull, engraving, flower, prints, blue-and-white firingis successful, a new era of white paint, and become a landmark event in thehistory of Chinese porcelain. It appears, then rapid development tovitality, King porcelain production appears unprecedented prosperity. Fromthe museums existing Yuan dynasty blue and white porcelain in Jingdezhen,porcelain making technology is quite advanced, quality has reached very high levels.
A tree blooming, then flower, blue and white in the same period, the Yuandynasty also invented the underglaze red porcelain of Jingdezhen‘s porcelainworkers, which is a major innovation of the project. Underglaze redporcelain copper red glazes in the embryo after drawing patterns on, thencover with a transparent glaze, burn in the flame high temperaturereduction, decoration glazed in red. Underglaze red with blue and whitepaint products called underglaze red porcelain, pictures of red and blue,have some charm. Because of the firing is difficult and does not grow muchin the Yuan dynasty, hands are small. I saved one “to Tiger“ underglaze red,is the only Yuan dynasty underglaze red porcelain treasures with a calendarspread so far. In addition, the Yuan dynasty also burnt red, green, andHuang Sancai porcelain in Jingdezhen, egg white glaze, copper red glaze, Qi Lan new varieties, King porcelain decorations colorful. Worthy of specialmention is the egg white glaze Shu Fu, it is burning porcelain in JingdezhenImperial Privy Council in official institutions, carcass, and white microgreen, glossy like goose egg, glazed celadon have greatly improved thanbefore. In terms of porcelain–making techniques, a significant improvementis in the Yuan dynasty porcelain stone porcelain raw material from the original formula changed to stone and kaolin binary formula, so as toincrease the alumina content in porcelain, porcelain firing temperature isincreased, reducing the deformation rate of firing, has created goodconditions for the manufacture of large objects.
Yuan dynasty ruled China time is not long, but the King porcelain production development in this period was outstanding. In Yuan dynasty based on the Ming dynasty Jingdezhen porcelain more advances. Has become the national porcelain industry centers of Jingdezhen, porcelain produced by not only the quantity, quality, variety, also find a wider market. Only in terms of decoration, but to a lot of firing outside the blue-and-white porcelain and to further improve the quality, glazed porcelain began to appear again, and “like a rabbit walking Eagle Falls, horse betting thousands of feet” its rapid momentum, amazing race. Noted in the history of Chinese ceramics: “the invention of porcelain is an important milestone in the history of Chinese ceramics”. Indeed, the King in the Ming dynasty porcelain is brilliant beating, regardless of the quantity, quality, variety, and so have become the leader in China. In his famous Ming dynasty scientist Song Yingxing wrote in the Heavenly Creations: “merging several County, Jiangxi Rao Jun lost to … … As for ethnic Chinese four well-known, hunters were give County fuliang of Jingdezhen produced. ” Another Ming dynasty official Wang Shimao in the ER you Tan also said: “the Ming dynasty, the violet out of Jingdezhen porcelain to fine to the United States. “Another record more images, he said, Jingdezhen” gathered for the kiln, its complicated, in a province. Yu Shou-Governor to the taste, light a candle. Night, can’t sleep, enthusiasm, saying: four lightning “. From these accounts, you can clearly recognize the glory of Jingdezhen porcelain production in the Ming dynasty. On the variety and splendor of Ming porcelain was also unprecedented. This time, create success again as thin as an eggshell, eggshell porcelain light silk yarn, variety, size, pattern enrich porcelain Board. There are subtle, genuine antique porcelain. The same timeThere are absolutely many skills, famous for its potters, such as “power egg Cup”, “Liu Xia is a” famous “pot hidden handyman in” Wu Hao 19, eggshell porcelain made by his “power egg Cup” is known as one of the top porcelain. Antique porcelain made famous by Zhou Danquan antique porcelain, makes it impossible to distinguish between true and false, so that the advent of a boutique, paid attention to the pursuit of the Quartet, the daughter. Another famous antique Cui Guo Mao greater reputation, his imitation of xuande, kiln porcelain called “Cui Gong Yao” noise and clamor for the Quartet. As famous in porcelain of Jingdezhen, and Hankou in Hubei Province in Ming town, town, Foshan, Guangdong, zhuxianzhen in Henan province and known as the “famous town”.
Jingdezhen porcelain is a significant event in the history of the Ming dynasty Imperial factory was established. In order to meet the needs ofemperors Palace porcelain, were set up as early as the Yuan dynastyJingdezhen national service only for the Royal family of specialized agencies–the fuliang porcelain Bureau. During the reign of Emperor Hongwu of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang, the first emperor in the song and Yuandynasty Royal Royal porcelain in Jingdezhen supervision to buy based onqinming set in Jingdezhen imperial workshop, specifically for the burningPalace of the Royal family, foreign, gifts porcelain. Imperial workshop withimperial pomp, bringing together a large number of master craftsmen ofporcelain production, specializes in porcelain making technology, invest a lot of money, taking up the best raw materials, product excellence, andtherefore produces many fine porcelain. These China not only the variety andstyle range, and high quality sparkling beauty, made one and put it down,many treasures handed down, have a huge impact in the world. Built in themid-14th century AD imperial workshop, last Ming and Qing dynasty, after 27when more than 500 years, places of porcelain production development and thequality is great. Associated with the Imperial factory also produced a “Tong Yu hop kiln“ story: the Ming dynasty village in fuliang Tong Bao, eunuch duQi Qing long cylinder Pan Xiang in Jingdezhen during the long burn fails,kiln, later dubbed the “wind and fire“, and Temple worship.
It should be recognized that because of the war in late Ming dynasty andearly Qing dynasty in Jingdezhen porcelain production was affected, and evenstalled. The Kangxi 19 (1680), the production not only of Jingdezhenporcelain industry recovered, and the rising sun, on the basis of the rapiddevelopment in the Ming dynasty. After the majority of porcelain work andstudy hard and tireless efforts of craftsman, King porcelain production by leaps and bounds, with its glorious achievements made, formed the Kangxi,Yongzheng and qianlongsan towards the peak of porcelain production, whichleapt to a historic peak. Early Qing Shen Huaiqing said: “Chang Nan potteryline in nine fields, Shi and abroad, ceramics measured in tens of thousands of people.“ And that is called “Yin Hongxu“ France missionaries, he wasEmperor Kangxi 51 (1712) said in a letter issued on September 1 in raozhou:“the old only 300 kilns in Jingdezhen, and now, the kiln has reached 3,000.…… At night, it seems to be a big city surrounded by flames, like a lot ofbig furnace chimney. Mr Henry TANG in his edifying pictorial Conferenceclearly said “Jingdezhen you Mao only extend more than 10 years … …, Tao Lai Quartet vendors, only two hundred or three hundred craftsmen husbandover hundreds of thousands of, this high number of eaters“.
Jingdezhen porcelain in the Qing dynasty, not only inherits the process Ming dynasty and varieties, and there are many inventions. Like Kangxi Shi of blue-and-white porcelain color is gem blue, than Ming dynasty of more bright pure, don’t with style; glaze Shang colorful for invention glaze Shang blue color and ink color, than Ming dynasty of more colorful, patterns clear, coloring sharp; bucket color of varieties also than Ming dynasty of increased, Yongzheng period of green glaze fired reached history most mature stage; more valuable of is created success has many precious of new varieties, as in Kangxi colorful of based Shang, created has to “glass white” for filler, makes picture color soft, and rich icing of pastel; introduced abroad color material, Exclusively for Royal and Imperial enameldirectly with gold trim porcelain color; in the monochrome glaze, add otheringredients to make it flow at high temperature changes, formation ofAmbilight, illuminate the magnificent wonders of “variable“, and so on.Others, such as ink color, white metal glaze, blue glaze, coral andturquoise glaze, Carmine also came into being. In addition, during theEmperor Kangxi, also resumed production since the middle of the Ming dynastynearly lost copper red glazes, especially lang kiln, Cowpea red, red is themost famous. In short, King of the Qing dynasty porcelain, glaze and thequality, shape, have reached unprecedented levels, into a whole new realm.
View China’s development in the Qing dynasty, as King of doc Tao Guan porcelain made outstanding contributions to the Honourable Henry Tang credited. He was Governor in Jingdezhen ceramic 15 is the Jingdezhen Imperial kiln plant du Tao’s longest, scores most of the du Tao Guan. 15In the year that he did not “official” above on Tao Min, and “people” with an open mind to learn from Tao Min, mingle with artisans. To the beginning of the town, know nothing in porcelain, dumenxieke, carefully study the Tao Wu, and craftsmen with the food card for three years, finally Act expert, mastered the knowledge of various porcelain and practice, together with porcelain workers engaged in technology research. Meanwhile, scientific summary of porcelain production technology is theoretically be improved, has written out of the Tao Wuxu, cultivate pictorial, the Tao Cheng Chronicle, the porcelain Oracle releases and other works. In particular this illustrated book of the mold pictures into ceramic technology history and important documents in the history of world culture. He du Tao Shi porcelain products called “Tang dynasty kiln”, their manufacturing and quality have reached an unprecedented level. Lan Qing Qing dynasty which is the Jingdezhen ceramic recorded his high appraisal: “deep knowledge of soil water veins, carefully selecting the materials, Ju Jing Ying pure … … Kiln at this point, the master “. In his later years, he put his own poetry collection in book form, name of the words of the Suebito, entirely to itself as Suebito. In addition to Mr Henry TANG, there are several Tuk Tao Guan, Jingdezhen porcelain industry there are different levels of contribution. From 19 to 27 Ambassador of Emperor Kangxi of Qing dynasty in Jingdezhen Imperial kiln factory inspectors of Tao Guan Zang Yingxuan, producing porcelain of the period known as “Zang Yao”, various colors of products ready, especially Snakeskin Green, eel and yellow, Ji Cui, yellow spot is better, more famous bright red. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi of Qing dynasty Governor of Jiangxi Lang Tingquan, in 43 years of Emperor Kangxi in the seven years to 50 years, and Governor of Jingdezhen pottery responsibility, he is passionate about the study of porcelain, outstanding achievement is lang Yao Hong (also called baoshihong) successfully produced, and plain tri-color. Year soupYao in four years of Yongzheng ambit of Jingdezhen Imperial kiln, kiln produced porcelain known as ten years “year kiln” glazes invented many Rouge glaze’s most famous, and “in-law” glazes are also prominent. Also worth mentioning is that a foreign figure has also contributed to the Jingdezhen porcelain, his Chinese name lang shining, Italy, and in 1715 as missionaries to China, and was called into the Court, and became a full-time painter. He had created a lot of porcelain in Jingdezhen for the Court walls and ceramic works, combining Chinese and Western painting styles to descendants of his great influence.
As the years change, things become pale, in the long history of Jingdezhen’s porcelain industry have also encountered setbacks. After the Qing dynasty due to various social causes, King porcelain production from top to down, output, quality, variety, shapes and so on are increasing dramatically shrinking State. Especially after the opium war, fighting frequently, political instability, foreign invasion, market will shrink and King porcelain production was badly torn. Lasted more than 500 years of imperial workshop has come to an end. The Republic of China, social instability, warlord, hardship, especially during the Japanese invasion of China, Jingdezhen city repeatedly bombed by Japanese aircraft, and workshop, kiln destruction of large area, the town of kiln can burn only 33And in a dying situation, the whole bottom porcelain production. But there are oases in the desert, in this era of recession, porcelain production in the operation has improved, as a result of pedal-powered windlass car, broken hand glaze, plaster casting, blow glaze, such as more advanced method of fog. In particular the end of the Qing Xuantong, was set up in Jingdezhen of Jiangxi porcelain company, marking the Jingdezhen ceramics into an era of enterprise, show the seeds of capitalism. The company diversified in design, and many of these innovations, production is also very delicate, and also carried out a series of technological innovations, pilot production machinery, decal ceramic, using coal instead of wood to burn, etc, there are larger forces. During the Republic of China, Du Chongyuan for ceramic industry of Jingdezhen the porcelain industry reform reform devoted painstaking efforts, he insisted that revive the King porcelain, ceramic industry authority set up, since the Director. From the field to recruit and train porcelain workers, develop measures to reform the ceramic industry to promote Jingdezhen porcelain production full of vitality. Ceramic art, along with Cheng Men in the late Qing dynasty, Jin Pinqing, represented by scholars such as Wang Shaowei shallow Jiang ming, instead of elaborate and gaudy, the pursuit of former China after simple elegant fresh style, Wang Xiaotang, Pan? Yu with pastel paint painted porcelain, greatly expanded the field of color. In the 1930 of the 20th century, Wang Qi, Wang Dafan, and Deng Bishan, and Wang Yeting, and Cheng Yiting, and Liu Yucen, Xu Zhongnan, cranes and other eight people in Zhushan gatherings on a regular basis, explore the ceramic art, on the decorative arts, called “Zhu Shan BA you.” These writers art friends have high skill and reputation, expertise, different styles, noise reduction at home and abroad, pastel Jingdezhen art to new heights.
China is first invented porcelain country so foreigners refer to us as “the country of China”, in English “CHINA” ware, also known as China. As the “porcelain capital” Jingdezhen porcelain, has extended to the country as early as Tang dynasty and Song dynasty, especially the town’s name was changed to “Jing de”, the influence and competitiveness increased, and the official, Yu, contests, brother, June the five famous kilns products. Chiang Kai-shek in the book of Tao, Chi said: “the surface, clay, bleach is not a defect, Yu he, there are” Rao Yu, “said, its really red, spring green and the secret, Xiang Jingqi”. The Yuan dynasty, King porcelain more popular, not only with the “true red, spring green and the secret” surface, even has a monopoly of power. Entering the Ming and Qing dynasties, porcelain of Jingdezhen became overwhelming, Gao ju, China market status of main street across the country, Jiangxi province, so the description of ambition: “the North by yanyun, South of jiaozhi, East Sea, and West by Shu, thoughtfulness, taking in Jingdezhen, merchants tend to be moudali”. Historical records, the city has an international market of the capital of Changan in the Tang dynasty, porcelain and the new products of interest to many foreigners come to China, they have purchased. King porcelain had to “fake jade” reputation of Chang ‘ an, of course, included in the purchase. After the Tang dynasty to the Song dynasty, China porcelain there are two routes to the outside, one is with the “Silk Road” overland routes, one is Japan ceramics scholar referred to in three previous men “porcelain route” sea lanes. First is the Jingdezhen porcelain sold to Asian countries. Lizong in South Song dynasty era-book called the fan records, there was a 56Countries and regions, the main origin is the Jingdezhen porcelain trade. Meanwhile, Jingdezhen porcelain reached Europe, Netherlands people in the song to the South ferry traffic in Jingdezhen porcelain in Quanzhou, Fujian. Due to the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasty in Jingdezhen porcelain production development, export porcelain more invention in the Yuan dynasty blue and white porcelain exported to foreign countries, the Philippines, Indonesia, India, and Japan, Malay West of Jingdezhen in Yuan dynasty blue and white porcelain fragments were unearthed. The early Ming dynasty, the “three successive” Zheng He’s seven voyages, led the then largest fleet in the world, has reached the archipelago, Persian, Arab, more than 30 countries, shipping is the Jingdezhen blue and white porcelain on its key commodities. Along Zheng He’s voyage of the Ying Yai Sheng-LAN by Ma Huan not in wow “people like Chinese blue and white porcelain” records. In addition, the Americas, Africa, and Australia is also extremely fond of Chinese porcelain. It is recorded that during the Ming dynasty during the reign of longqing, only Mexico Bank of silver into China will have 1 million or 2 million, a considerable part of which was used to buy porcelain in Jingdezhen. The so-called “nine domains on a China business town, tooth row suits take opened. To know to the reality outside the Tong Yang, Gong Annan replied back “is the Jingdezhen porcelain” line in the ninth, Shi and abroad “a true portrayal. Hill has its ups and downs, flowers to flourish, despite the changes in production have rise and fall of Jingdezhen porcelain industry, but thousands of years of fire continuously, porcelain for more than 2000-year history of the formation of the long road, but it is always an endless, meandering forward. Why do that? There are a variety of reasons.
“Soil and water should be ceramic“ advantageous natural conditions is Kingpredetermined factors in the development of porcelain production. Jingdezhen is located in Jiangxi province Northeast, is subtropical monsoon climate district, rainfall full, water, and light sufficient; territory mountains downs, has rich of forest resources; near Gao Ling Cun produced of “kaolin” is fired porcelain of quality raw materials, world this class clay are to this named; territory River aspect, East River, and nanhe, and XI he and small North River collection Changjiang, then since North to South flows through urban, to Poyang Lake to into Yangtze River. This from thetemperature, light, water, raw materials, fuel and transport, the firedporcelain solves the problem as a whole, promotes the development of viewceramic. Because the porcelain has a long history, from generation to generation, has accumulated rich experience in porcelain, comprehensivetechnology and skill. Technology Division, the so-called “total success of aslab, over 72, g generator“. Renovation of kiln, burning quality is gettingbetter. Also, for historical and social reasons, full mass flow porcelaincraftsman in Jingdezhen, the Northern Song dynasty, the soldiers of theSouth, ru, be, in the North fled to Jingdezhen kiln craftsmen such as June;then South, fall of the Southern Song dynasty, around the kiln aredestroyed, many artisans fled to the set here. Thus, Jingdezhen has beenbased on the old technology, and continue to attract foreign technology,bring out the icing on the cake, and set of skills around the world, yield,the continuous improvement of the quality and variety of colorful.
Demographic composition is the Jingdezhen is called “quintet the wrongparent“ referred to is the Jingdezhen–centered around the duchang, andyamcha, and Keemun, and boyang, Fuzhou, Nanchang, Yugan and Yujiang,Shangrao Prefecture of idle onto Jingdezhen to earn a living in thecountryside, formed a “five 18“ everywhere. Personnel in these areas for theproduction of Jingdezhen porcelain industry provides a lot of cheap labour,is an important factor of King porcelain flourished. After Tang and Song dynasties, Jingdezhen porcelain production, improve quality, reputation isgrowing, not only the market expanded, and attracted the attention of Royaland taking, “and is tribute to“ and set for a long time in Jingdezhenimperial workshop, large amounts of money in Jingdezhen of the Royal family.This porcelain from the market and Royal both provided funding forJingdezhen porcelain. More important is the Jingdezhen porcelain Ondekoza, a large number of porcelain for sale abroad, obtain a large amount of foreigncurrency. With ample capital, Jingdezhen continued production, reproduction,and reproduction.
Favorable natural conditions, porcelain skilled talent sufficient labor,rich in sources, is the Jingdezhen kilns of the Millennium several importantreason to fire continuously.